Wednesday, January 24, 2018

[Botany • 2018] A Revision of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae, Cucurbitales) from Northeast India with Description of A New Species, Begonia koelzii

Begonia acetosella Craib.; Begonia annulata K.Koch.; Begonia dioica Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don.   
  Begonia beddomei Hook.f. by M. Smith (Hooker 1884); Begonia cathcartii Hook.f. by W.H. Fitch (Hooker 1855); Begonia pedunculosa Wall. by Vishnupersaud (Wallich 1830).

in Camfield & Hughes, 2018. 
  DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2018.396 


Following a taxonomic revision of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae, Cucurbitales) from Northeast India based on 332 herbarium specimens, 38 species are confirmed to occur in the region, of which ten are endemic. One new species is described, Begonia koelzii R.Camfield sp. nov., in B. sect. Platycentrum (Klotzsch) A.DC. One species is reduced into synonymy; B. barbata Wall. is now a synonym of B. thomsonii A.DC. Three species, B. difformis (Irmsch.) W.C.Leong, C.I Peng & K.F.ChungB. labordei H.Lév. and B. handelii Irmsch., are reported new for India, and B. lushaiensis C.E.C.Fisch. is reinstated as an accepted species, having previously been synonymised under B. modestiflora Kurz. A key to the species in the region and preliminary conservation assessments are presented.

Keywords: Begonia; taxonomy; revision; Northeast India

Fig. 7. Begonia acetosella Craib. A. Plant habit. B–C. Leaf variation. D. Female bud. E. Female flower. F. Reverse of flower. G. Styles. Photographs by Rebecca Camfield of a plant in cultivation at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (accession 19980065).  
Fig. 11. Begonia annulata K.Koch. A–B. Leaf. C. Male flower. D–E. Fruit. Photographs courtesy of Darrin Norton of a plant in cultivation in a private collection.
Fig. 23. Photograph showing habit and female flowers of Begonia dioica Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don. Photograph courtesy of Sangeeta Rajbhandary of a plant in Nepal.

Fig. 13. Illustration of Begonia beddomei Hook.f. by M. Smith (Hooker 1884). 1. Stamen. 2. Styles. 3. Fruit cross-section. Image from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by the Peter H. Raven Library  
Fig. 20. Illustration of Begonia cathcartii Hook.f. by W.H. Fitch (Hooker 1855). 1–3. Stamen, front, back and side view. 4. Pollen. 5. Immature fruit. 6. Cross-section of fruit showing ovary placentation. Image from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by the Peter H. Raven Library
Fig. 47. Illustration of Begonia pedunculosa Wall. by Vishnupersaud (Wallich 1830). 1. Male flower, front view. 2. Male flower, reverse view. 3. Female flower, front view. 4. Female flower, reverse view. Image from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by the Peter H. Raven Library

Fig. 34. Begonia koelzii R.Camfield sp. nov. A. Plant habit. B. Leaf. C. Bulbil. D. Young female flowers. E. Fruit. Photographs courtesy of Nick Macer, of a plant in Manipur. 

Begonia koelzii R.Camfield sp. nov. [sect. Platycentrum]
 Diagnosis:  Similar to B. macrotoma Irmsch. (1951: 41) in having lacerate leaves, but differs in having a larger lamina (20–40 cm long, not 12–15 cm) and female flowers with 4–6 (not 3) tepals.

Etymology: The epithet honours Walter N. Koelz (1895–1989), the American zoologist who collected the type.

Distribution and phenology: Endemic to the Arakan Mountain Range, usually found growing on cliff faces; 1000–2100 m.

Conservation status Data Deficient: The full distribution of B. koelzii in the Arakan mountains is unknown

Rebecca Camfield and Mark Hughes. 2018.   A Revision and One New Species of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae, Cucurbitales) in Northeast India.  European Journal of Taxonomy. 396;  1–116. DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2018.396

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

[Crustacea • 2018] Molecular Phylogenetics of Swimming Crabs (Portunoidea Rafinesque, 1815) supports A Revised Family-Level Classification and suggests A Single Derived Origin of Symbiotic Taxa

 (E) Zygita murinae, comb. nov. (UF 36721; Farasan Banks); (F) Trierarchus woodmasoni, comb. nov. (UF 40079; Guam);
Trierarchus cf. cooperi sp. Acomb. nov. (UF 16023; Moorea Is.); (H) Trierarchus cf. cooperi sp. Bcomb. nov. (UF 40100; Guam);
Trierarchus rotundifrons, comb. nov. (UF 40067; Guam); (J) Trierarchus squamosus, comb. nov. (USNM 102963; Bikini Atoll; preserved specimen, grayscale, left frontal margin damaged).
Photographs (F, H–J) by Nathaniel Evans; photographs (E, G) by Gustav Paulay.

in Evans, 2018.   DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4260 


Portunoidea is a diverse lineage of ecologically and economically important marine crabs comprising 8 families and 14 subfamilies. Closely related portunid subfamilies Caphyrinae and Thalamitinae constitute some of this group’s greatest morphological and taxonomic diversity, and are the only known lineages to include symbiotic taxa. Emergence of symbiosis in decapods remains poorly studied and portunoid crabs provide an interesting, but often overlooked example. Yet the paucity of molecular phylogenetic data available for Portunoidea makes it challenging to investigate the evolution and systematics of the group. Phylogenetic analyses, though limited, suggest that many putative portunoid taxa are para- or polyphyletic. Here I augment existing molecular data—significantly increasing taxon sampling of Caphyrinae, Thalamitinae, and several disparate portunoid lineages—to investigate the phylogenetic origin of symbiosis within Portunoidea and reevaluate higher- and lower-level portunoid classifications. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on sequences of H3, 28S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and CO1 for up to 168 portunoid taxa; this included, for the first time, molecular data from the genera Atoportunus, Brusinia, Caphyra, Coelocarcinus, Gonioinfradens, Raymanninus, and Thalamonyx. Results support the placement of all symbiotic taxa (Caphyra, Lissocarcinus, and two Thalamita) in a single clade derived within the thalamitine genus Thalamita. Caphyrina Paulson, 1875, nom. trans. is recognized here as a subtribe within the subfamily Thalamitinae. Results also support the following taxonomic actions: Cronius is reclassified as a thalamitine genus; Thalamonyx is reestablished as a valid genus; Goniosupradens is raised to the generic rank; and three new genera (Zygita gen. nov., Thranita gen. nov., and Trierarchus gen. nov.) are described to accommodate some Thalamita s.l. taxa rendered paraphyletic by Caphyrina. A new diagnosis of Thalamitinae is provided. Results also support a more conservative classification of Portunoidea comprising three instead of eight extant families: Geryonidae (Geryonidae + Ovalipidae; new diagnosis provided), Carcinidae (Carcinidae + Pirimelidae + Polybiidae + Thiidae + Coelocarcinus; new diagnosis provided) and Portunidae. Finally, 16s rRNA data suggests family Brusiniidae might not be a portunoid lineage.

Figure 1: Representatives of various Portunoidea taxa included in this study.
(A) Brusinia profunda (USNM 277519; New Caledonia; preserved color); (B) Coelocarcinus foliatus (UF 40176; Guam); (C) Carupa tenuipes (UF 39918; Palau); (D) Libystes (UF 23926; Moorea Is.); (E) Lupocyclus cf. philippinensis (UF 41639; Luzon Is.); (F) Podophthalmus vigil (UF 24543; Moorea Is.); (G) Portunus (Cycloachelous) granulatus (UF 40021; Guam); (H) Portunus (Portunus) sanguinolentus (UF 24538; Moorea Is.). Photographs (A–C, G) by Nathaniel Evans; photographs (D–F, H) by Gustav Paulay.

 Figure 2: Representative non-symbiotic Thalamitinae species.
(A) Cronius ruber (UF 35672; Florida); (B) Thalamitoides spinigera (UF 36697; Farasan Banks); (C) Gonioinfradens paucidentatus (UF 37141; Red Sea); (D) Goniosupradens acutifrons (UF 7114; Okinawa); (E) Charybdis orientalis (UF 41638; Luzon Is.); (F) Thalamonyx gracilipes (UF 42972; Mindoro Is.); (G) Thalamita admete (UF 40031; Guam); (H) Thalamita chaptalii (UF 39917; Palau); (I) Thranita coeruleipes, comb. nov. (UF 40078; Guam); (J) Thalamita cf. philippinensis (UF 43302; Mindoro Is.). Photographs (A, G–I) by Nathaniel Evans; photographs (B–F, J) by Gustav Paulay. 

Figure 3: Representative putative symbiotic Thalamitinae species.
 (A) Caphyra loevis (UF 39060); (B) Lissocarcinus cf. laevis (UF 39136; New Caledonia); (C) Lissocarcinus holothuricola (UF 30182; Marquesas); (D) Lissocarcinus orbicularis (UF 23972; Moorea); (E) Zygita murinae, comb. nov. (UF 36721; Farasan Banks); (F) Trierarchus woodmasoni, comb. nov. (UF 40079; Guam); (G) Trierarchus cf. cooperi sp. A, comb. nov. (UF 16023; Moorea Is.); (H) Trierarchus cf. cooperi sp. B, comb. nov. (UF 40100; Guam); (I) Trierarchus rotundifrons, comb. nov. (UF 40067; Guam); (J) Trierarchus squamosus, comb. nov. (USNM 102963; Bikini Atoll; preserved specimen, grayscale, left frontal margin damaged). Photographs (A–C, F, H–J) by Nathaniel Evans; photographs (D, E, G) by Gustav Paulay.

This study constitutes the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analyses of Portunoidea to date, but highlights numerous areas where additional work is needed. Results support a more conservative classification of Portunoidea with three instead of eight extant families: Geryonidae (Geryonidae + Ovalipidae; new diagnosis provided), Carcinidae (Carcinidae + Pirimelidae + Polybiidae + Thiidae + Coelocarcinus; new diagnosis provided) and Portunidae. Limited molecular data also suggest that the family Brusiniidae may still be valid, but might not be a portunoid lineage. A major aim of this study was to investigate the molecular phylogenetic origin of symbiosis within Portunoidea by substantially increasing taxon sampling of the subfamilies Caphyrinae and Thalamitinae. Results support a shared ancestry of all symbiotic taxa (Caphyra, Lissocarcinus, and two Thalamita) derived within the thalamitine genus Thalamita. Consequently, Caphyrina Paulson, 1875, nom. trans., should be considered a subtribe within the subfamily Thalamitinae. Although the nature, degree, and phylogenetic pattern of symbiosis within Caphyrina needs further study, this clade is clearly dominated by symbiotic taxa and likely originated from a symbiotic ancestor. Results presented here also support the following taxonomic actions within Thalamitinae: Cronius is reclassified as a thalamitine rather than a portunine genus; Thalamonyx is reinstated as a valid genus; Goniosupradens is raised to the generic rank; and three new genera (Zygita gen. nov., Thranita gen. nov., and Trierarchus gen. nov.) are described to accommodate some Thalamita sensu lato taxa rendered paraphyletic by Caphyrina. A new diagnosis of Thalamitinae has also been provided.

Nathaniel Evans. 2018. Molecular Phylogenetics of Swimming Crabs (Portunoidea Rafinesque, 1815) supports A Revised Family-Level Classification and suggests A Single Derived Origin of Symbiotic Taxa. PeerJ. 6:e4260.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4260

[Botany • 2018] A Taxonomic Monograph of the Fern Genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae) in South America

Ctenitis submarginalis  (Langsd. & Fisch.) Ching

in Viveros, Rouhan & Salino, 2018. 

Based on collections of 45 Herbaria in addition to newly collected specimens and some field observations, a taxonomic treatment for South American Ctenitis is provided, a hundred years after Christensen’s monographs. Guided by morphological species concept, 26 taxa are recognized (23 species and three varieties). A key including all taxa is provided, and all species are fully morphologically described, with information on distribution and habitat. Brazil is the richest country with 22 taxa, of which 13 are endemic, restricted mainly to Atlantic Forest. Taxa occurring in the other South American countries are also widely distributed in Mesoamerica and West Indies, except C. megalastriformis, only known from Peru, and C. refulgens var. peruviana, recorded in Peru and Bolivia. We dealt with 163 names that apply to the South American species. In addition, we propose three new combinations, and designate 38 lectotypes and three neotypes.

Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Brazil, ferns, Neotropics, taxonomy, typification, Pteridophytes

Raquel Stauffer Viveros, Germinal Rouhan and Alexandre Salino. 2018. A Taxonomic Monograph of the Fern Genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae) in South America. Phytotaxa.  335(1); 1–83. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.385.1.1

[Entomology • 2018] Drepanosticta emtrai • A New Species of Damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae) from Vietnam with A Discussion of Drepanosticta vietnamica Asahina, 1997

Drepanosticta emtrai 
Dow, Kompier & Phan, 2018


Drepanosticta emtrai sp. nov. is described from Vietnam (holotype male Ha Tinh Province, 9 vi 2015, to be deposited in RMNH). The new species is allied to D. carmichaeli (Laidlaw, 1915) and a number of other species of Drepanosticta including D. vietnamica Asahina, 1997. New illustrations of the paratype of D. vietnamica are provided and the species is discussed. The Drepanosticta carmichaeli-group, to which the above mentioned species belong, is defined and discussed.

Keywords: Odonata, Platystictidae, Vietnam, Drepanosticta emtrai, Drepanosticta carmichaeli-group, Drepanosticta vietnamica, new species

 Rory A. Dow, Tom Kompier and Quoc Toan Phan. 2018. Drepanosticta emtrai sp. nov. from Vietnam with a discussion of Drepanosticta vietnamica Asahina, 1997 (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).  Zootaxa. 4374(2); 273-282. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4374.2.7 


[Herpetology • 2010] Cyrtodactylus durio • A New Spiny, Prehensile-tailed Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia with A Preliminary Hypothesis of Relationships based on Morphology

Cyrtodactylus durio 
 Grismer, Anuar, Quah, Muin, Onn, Grismer & Ahmad. 2010

A new species, Cyrtodactylus durio sp. nov., is described from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia on the basis of its head, body, limbs, and tail being extremely spinose as well as other unique combinations of squamation and color pattern. It is proposed that C. durio sp. nov. forms a clade with C. brevipalmatus, C. elok, C. spinosus, and C. stresemanni on the basis of having a spiny, prehensile tail and that it is the sister species of C. stresemanni based on unique caudal tuberculation. Cytrodactylus durio sp. nov. is the latest in a growing list of new species of amphibians and reptiles recently described from the Malay Peninsula, and Peninsular Malaysia in particular, that clearly underscores the need for continuing exploratory research in these regions.

FIGURE 2. Holotype ZRC 2.9606 of Cyrtodactylus durio sp. nov. 

 Cyrtodactylus durio sp. nov.

Etymology. The specific epithet durio is in reference to the Latin generic name Durio for the durian fruits of Asia. It is derived from the Latin root dur, meaning hard or duable. Its application as the specific epithet herein is based on the similar spiny exterior of both the durian and the gecko.  

 Larry Lee Grismer, Shahrul Anuar, Evan Quah, Mohd Abdul Muin, Chan Kin Onn, Jesse L Grismer and Norhayati Ahmad. 2010. A New Spiny, Prehensile-tailed Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia with A Preliminary Hypothesis of Relationships based on Morphology. Zootaxa.  2625; 40-52.

[Herpetology • 2018] Sitana attenboroughii • A New Species of Fan-throated Lizard of the Genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala, southern India

 Sitana attenboroughii 
Sadasivan, Ramesh, Palot, Ambekar & Mirza, 2018


We here describe Sitana attenboroughii sp. nov.a new species of fan-throated lizard of the genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala in southern India. The new species morphologically is closer to Sitana visiri Deepak, 2016 (in Deepak et al. 2016a), however, differs in having higher numbers of ventral scales and a comparatively short but richly colored dewlap. Genetically the new species shows affinity to Sitana marudhamneydhal Deepak, Khandekar, Varma & Chaitanya, 2016 from which it differs in an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 2.2% for a fragment of mitochondrial Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) subunit 2 gene.

Keywords: Reptilia, taxonomy, India, molecular phylogeny, mitochondrial DNA, Kerala

 Sitana attenboroughii sp. nov. in life, holotype male (BNHS 2481)

 Kalesh Sadasivan, M. B. Ramesh, Muhamed Jafer Palot, Mayuresh Ambekar and Zeeshan A. Mirza. 2018. A New Species of Fan-throated Lizard of the Genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala, southern India. Zootaxa. 4374(4); 545–564. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4374.4.5

[Botany • 2017] Aloe belitsakensis • A New Species (Asphodelaceae) from north-western Madagascar

 Aloe belitsakensis
in Rakotoarisoa & Grace, 2017

Madagascar is a major centre of diversity for the leaf-succulent genus Aloe Linnaeus (1753: 319) accounting for roughly a third of Aloe species (Carter et al. 2011). Approximately 128 species and 161 taxa are known from the region and all are restricted to Madagascar (Rakotoarisoa et al. 2014) and/or the nearby Mascarene archipelago. New taxa are described from these islands at a rate that rivals the ongoing discovery of aloes elsewhere in their natural range, on the African continent or Arabian Peninsula (Crouch et al. 2013). Extinction risks are alarmingly high among species of Aloe in this region. Conservatively, 39% of species are known to be threatened, and this figure is likely to be significantly higher (Rakotoarisoa et al. 2014), since several species have not been observed or collected for many decades. The Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre (KMCC) aims to record and collect the rare and threatened flora of Madagascar to ensure its conservation, and the genus Aloe is a priority for the dryland programme.

Keywords: Aloe, new species, Xanthorrhoeaceae, Madagascar, Monocots

Solofo E. Rakotoarisoa and Olwen M. Grace. 2017. Aloe belitsakensis (Asphodelaceae): A New Species from north-western Madagascar. Phytotaxa. 328(3); 276–282. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.328.3.6

[Paleontology • 2017] Pectodens zhenyuensis • A New Diapsid from the Middle Triassic of southern China

Pectodens zhenyuensis 
Li, Fraser, Rieppel, Zhao & Wang, 2017

   DOI: 10.1017/jpa.2017.12 

The Middle and early Late Triassic of southern China is well known for a remarkable diversity of marine vertebrates, particularly reptiles, including an abundance of intriguing new forms (e.g., Jiang et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2011; Li et al., 2016). Here we describe a new diapsid from Yunnan Province. It possesses an elongate neck that exhibits a remarkable similarity to that of many Protorosauria, yet in other respects the skull and postcranium are much less derived.

The new taxon is part of the so-called Panxian-Luoping Fauna and the deposits correspond to the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation, comprising thin to medium bedded, gray to dark-gray laminated marly limestone and limestone, with several layers of bentonite intercalated in the fossil level at Panxian (Wan, 2002; Motani et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2009). Their age is Pelsonian (middle Anisian, Middle Triassic) as is indicated by the conodont Nicoraella kockeli Zone (Sun et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2009). A recent U-Pb study indicates the absolute age of these middle Anisian beds to be close to 244 Ma (Wang et al., 2014).

  Life restoration of Pectodens zhenyuensis
by Yu Wang. 

Figure 1: Pectodens zhenyuensis n. gen. n. sp., Photograph of the holotype IVPP V18578. 

Systematic paleontology
Archosauromorpha von Huene, 1946
?Protorosauria Huxley, 1871

Family incertae sedis

Genus Pectodens new genus
Type species: Pectodens zhenyuensis n. gen. n. sp. by monotypy.

Etymology: From the Latin pecto meaning to comb and dens meaning teeth; in reference to the comb-like nature of the marginal dentition.

Occurrence: Luoping County of Yunnan Province, China; Member II of the Guanling Formation, Anisian, Middle Triassic.

Pectodens zhenyuensis new species

Holotype: IVPP V18578. Almost complete articulated skeleton.

Etymology: In honor of Zhenyu Li, who contributed greatly to the collection of the specimen from the field.


A new, small terrestrial tetrapod is described from the Middle Triassic of Yunnan, China. Pectodens zhenyuensis n. gen. n. sp. bears very characteristic elongate teeth forming a comb-like marginal dentition. The elongate cervicals of Pectodens zhenyuensis n. gen. n. sp. with low neural spines together with the morphology of the cervical ribs are features consistent with protorosaurs, such as Macrocnemus. However, the imperforate puboischiadic plate, simple rounded proximal tarsals, and a straight 5th metatarsal are primitive characteristics. A key protorosaurian character is the long neck with elongated cervical ribs that typically extend across intervertebral articulations. It was mostly on the basis of these characters that Dinocephalosaurus from the Middle Triassic of China was referred to the protorosaurs (Li, 2003). Another long-necked form, Fuyuansaurus, also exhibits certain affinities with protorosaurs, in particular the tanystropheids (Fraser et al., 2013). Yet both taxa also display characters that are inconsistent with at least the tanystropheids. Unlike tanystropheids, but in common with Protorosaurus (personal observation, N.C. Fraser, 2013), both lack a thyroid fenestra in the pelvis.

The Middle Triassic vertebrate faunas of southern China are largely dominated by marine reptiles and fishes, but occasional terrestrial components (e.g., Macrocnemus fuyuanensis) are recovered from localities in the Zhuganpo Member of the Falang Formation (Li et al., 2007; Jiang et al. 2011). Likewise, Pectodens zhenyuensis n. gen. n. sp. exhibits no adaptations for an aquatic lifestyle; instead the long, slender limbs with pronounced articular ends, and elongate digits together with the claw-like distal phalanges speak to an entirely terrestrial existence. No fully terrestrial vertebrates have been documented previously from the Panxian-Luoping Fauna, although the archosaur Qianosuchus mixtus exhibits a combination of terrestrial and aquatic characteristics (Li et al., 2006). Pectodens is therefore the first fully terrestrial reptile reported from the Guanling Formation. The occurrence of terrestrial reptiles such as Macrocnemus and Pectodens are indicative of the proximity of the ancient coastline at the localities where they occur.

Chun Li, Nicholas C. Fraser, Olivier Rieppel, Li-Jun Zhao and Li-Ting Wang. 2017. A New Diapsid from the Middle Triassic of southern China. Journal of Paleontology. 91(6); 1306-1312.   DOI: 10.1017/jpa.2017.12

[Herpetology • 2018] Amended Diagnosis and Redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), with A Description of Its Advertisement Call and Notes on Its Breeding Ecology and Phylogenetic Relationships

Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900)

in Kok, Dezfoulian, Means, Fouquet & Barrio-Amorós, 2018. 
    DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2018.397 


The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

Keywords: Anura; Guiana Shield; Pantepui; systematics; Terrarana

Superfamily Brachycephaloidea Günther, 1858
Family Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008
Genus Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870
Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900)


Fig. 4. Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (four individuals at the top) and P. pulvinatus (Rivero, 1968) (two individuals below). Intraspecific variation in dorsal colour pattern and sexual dimorphism in living specimens. Note: the subtle hint of green visible on the lower body and legs of some specimens of P. marmoratus is due to a reflection of the substrate (green leaf).
Photographs by Philippe J.R. Kok, except the uncollected P. pulvinatus, which is by César L. Barrio-Amorós. 

Fig. 6. A. Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez, an arboreal bromeliad species used as egg deposition site by Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) in the Wokomung Massif. B. Egg clutch of Pristimantis marmoratus deposited on a leaf of the arboreal bromeliad Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea in the Wokomung Massif. C. Egg clutch of Anomaloglossus beebei (Noble, 1923) (white arrow) deposited in the phytotelmata of the same plant as in B. D. Dorsolateral view of IRSNB 17916, 11.3 mm SVL, a juvenile of P. marmoratus collected on the slopes of Maringma-tepui, Guyana.
Photographs A–C by D. Bruce Means, D by Philippe J.R. Kok. 

Natural history: 
All specimens were found in undisturbed submontane or montane rainforest (Fig. 9), active on small trees 50–300 cm above the ground, exclusively at dusk. Pristimantis marmoratus is not a common species; only a few specimens have been found at each locality of occurrence. Males were found calling (in June and November) upside down from mossy tree trunks of low diameter (< 10 cm) between 120 and 300 cm above the ground, except one male (IRSNB 14473), which was calling from the top of a green leaf 50 cm above the ground. The “upside down” call posture is also found in the closely related P. sp. 1 of Fouquet et al. (2013) (as recovered in our preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis, see below), and in P. espedeus and P. inguinalis. 
In June 2012, which corresponds to the rainy season in the area, a cluster of four Pristimantis marmoratus eggs (Fig. 6B) was found by one of us (DBM) attached to the inside part of a leaf of a bromeliad, Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez (Fig. 6A), 150 cm above the ground, on Mount Kopinang, Wokomung Massif, near the top of Kamana Falls at about 1600 m elevation (04°59′58″ N, 59°52′49″ W). Molecular analyses confirmed conspecificity of these eggs with P. marmoratus (Appendix 3). The large, white eggs did not have visibly developed embryos. After photographing and preserving the eggs, the small plant was investigated for inhabitants of the aquatic portion of the phytotelmata. Immediately a small frog jumped out and disappeared into the deep ground litter, and eggs and tadpoles of Anomaloglossus beebei (Noble, 1923) were found in the water of the phytotelmata of the same small bromeliad and in the water of five other bromeliads nearby (egg/frog identifications confirmed by molecular analyses). Pristimantis marmoratus and Anomaloglossus beebei thus share the same bromeliad as an oviposition site on the Wokomung Massif (Fig. 6C). Other Pristimantis species found in syntopy with P. marmoratus were P. dendrobatoides (above 1600 m elevation), P. jester (above 1300 m elevation), P. saltissimus (above 1000 m elevation), and P. pulvinatus (above 1000 m elevation).

Philippe J.R. Kok, Raheleh Dezfoulian, D. Bruce Means, Antoine Fouquet and César L. Barrio-Amorós. 2018. Amended Diagnosis and Redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), with A Description of Its Advertisement Call and Notes on Its Breeding Ecology and Phylogenetic Relationships. European Journal of Taxonomy. 397; 1–30.   DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2018.397

[Botany • 2018] Taxonomic Revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae)

(B) Pachyptera aromatica,  (I) Pincarnata
(F) Perythraea (N)  Pkerere 

in Francisco & Lohmann, 2018. 

Pachyptera DC. is a small genus of neotropical lianas included in tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). The genus has a complicated taxonomic history but currently includes species distributed from Belize to Southern Amazon. Pachyptera is characterised by four main synapomorphies, namely, a papery peeling bark, prophylls of the axillary buds organised in a series of three, patelliform glands arranged in lines in the upper portions of the calyx and corolla tube. Furthermore, members of the genus also have stems with four phloem wedges in cross-section and conspicuous extrafloral nectaries between the interpetiolar region and at the petiole apex, although these characters are also shared with other genera of tribe Bignonieae. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Pachyptera, which includes a complete list of synonyms, detailed morphological descriptions of species and an identification key, as well as information on the habitat, distribution and phenology, nomenclatural notes, taxonomic comments and illustrations of all the species. In addition, we designate three lectotypes, propose one new combination, raise one variety to species status and describe a new species. After these adjustments, a Pachyptera with five well-defined species is recognised.

Keywords: Amazon, Flora, Pachyptera kerere, Neotropics, Taxonomy

Figure 1. Schematic diagram summarising phylogenetic relationships within Pachyptera, with morphological characters mapped on the diagram.
Names of the terminal taxa indicate the taxon in which these species were previously included. The taxonomic updates proposed here are also indicated. Relationships depicted follow Francisco and Lohmann (submitted).

Figure 2. Sample of morphological features of Pachyptera.
A–D Pachyptera aromatica: A Inflorescence B Frontal view of flowers C Detail of inflorescence and flowers, showing calyx partition D Interpetiolar region of stem with extra floral nectaries (EFNs) and prophylls of the axillary buds 3-seriated, triangular and minute
E–F Perythraea: E Inflorescence F Frontal view of flowers
G–L Pincarnata: G Stem with tendril surrounding a tree H Interpetiolar region of stem with EFNs and prophylls of the axillary buds flattened, ensiform and seriated I Inflorescence J Frontal view of flower K Pink patelliform glands on flower lobes L Detail of calyx
M–Q Pkerere: M Stem cross-section with four phloem wedges N Inflorescence O Frontal view of flower P White patelliform glands on flower lobes Q Detail of calyx.

Jessica Nayara Carvalho Francisco and Lúcia G. Lohmann. 2018. Taxonomic Revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae). PhytoKeys. 92: 89-131.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.92.20987

[Botany • 2017] Carex socotrana • A New Endemic Species (Cyperaceae) from Socotra Island

 Carex socotrana  Rěpka & Maděra

in Řepka, Maděra, Čermák & Forrest, 2017.  
 @CMEPorg  ||  DOI: 10.3417/D-16-00004   

We describe Carex socotrana Rěpka & Maděra, a new endemic species found in the Hajhir Mountains on Socotra Island. It differs from the morphologically similar African continental species C. steudneri Boeckeler in having a shorter stem, smaller leaf length and width, completely smooth leaf blades and margins, and pistillate scales without a whitish membranous margin and with distinctive awns at the apex. The spike clusters are smaller and more scattered on the stem, and the perigynium and its beak are smaller than in C. steudneri. So far only one small and one large population have been found near the highest mountain peak, Mount Scand. The new taxon is 1370 km from the closest known site of C. steudneri.

Keywords: Carex, Cyperaceae, IUCN, Socotra

Radomír Řepka, Petr Maděra, Martin Čermák and Alan Forrest. 2017. Carex socotrana, A New Endemic Species from Socotra Island. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature25(4); 467–472.  DOI: 10.3417/D-16-00004 

[Entomology • 2018] Saccharicoccus chinensis • A Review of the Genus Saccharicoccus Ferris, 1950 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in China, with Description of A New Species

Saccharicoccus chinensis
Zhang, Wu & Wu, 2018


The mealybug genus Saccharicoccus Ferris includes three species: S. isfarensis (Borchsenius, 1949), S. sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) and a new speciesS. chinensis Zhang, Wu & Wu sp. n. The new species, collected on Miscanthus sp. (Poaceae) and other poaceous weeds in China, is described and illustrated, and molecular analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) are provided. Additional data on the distribution and host-plants of each species are given, and a key to the adult females of Saccharicoccus species is provided.

Keywords: Hemiptera, mealybugs, minute pores, COI, distribution, host-plants

Jiang-Tao Zhang, Bo-Wen Wu and San-An Wu. 2018. A Review of the Genus Saccharicoccus Ferris, 1950 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in China, with Description of A New Species.   Zootaxa. 4375(1); 127–135.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4375.1.7